Encyclopaedia of the Laws of England, Vol. 5

Encyclopaedia of the Laws of England, Vol. 5
Encyclopaedia of the Laws of England, Vol. 5
Excerpt from Encyclopaedia of the Laws of England, Vol. 5: With Forms and PrecedentsUpon similar principles a mere declaration of intention of forgive a debt has no effect; there must be something amounting to a release in law (Cross v. Sprigg, 1849, 6 Hares, 553; 67 E. R. 1283; 77 R. R. 236).Acceptance by the donee is not essential to complete the gift. Acceptance will be presumed though he is not aware of the gift. He may, of course, repudiate the gift when he become aware of it (Handing v. Bowring, 1885, 31 Ch. D. 282; London and County Banking Co. v. London and River Plate Bank, 1888, 21 Q. B. D. 535, at p. 541).A regards the intention to give, it lies upon a donee, if called upon to do so, to support a gift, and therefore to show the intention to give.If, however, the donor stands to the donee in a relation from which an obligation, either natural or assumed on the part of the donor, to provide for the donee can be inferred, the intention to give will be presumed.Such an obligation exists, and accordingly the intention to give will be presumed, where the donor is the husband or the father of, or in loco parentis to, the donee. It does not exist in the case of a widowed mother (Soar v. Foster, 1858, 4 Kay & J. 160; 70 E. R. 64; Hepworth v. Hepworth, 1870, L. R. 11 Eq. 10; Bennet v. Bennet, 1879, 10 Ch. D. 474; see Vol. I. p. 208, sub tit. Advancement).On the other hand, where a fiduciary relation subsists between the donee and donor, such as the relation of guardian and ward, solicitor and client, physician and patient, priest and nun, and the like, a gift made while the relation continues can only be upheld if it shown that the gift was the spontaneous act of the donor under circumstances which entitled him to exercise a free and independent will, - a burden of proof which it is difficult, if not impossible, to discharge (Allcard v. Skinner, 1887, 36 Ch. D. 145; Morley v. Loughman, [1893] 1 Ch. 736; Liles v. Terry, [1895] 2 Q. B. 679). [See Powell v. Powell, [1900] 1 Ch. 234; Willis v. Barron, [1902] A. C. 271; Wright v. Carter, [1903] 1 Ch. 27; De Witte v. Addison, 80 L.T. 207. See Fiduciary Relationship; Money Lenders Act; Undue Influence. A voluntary gift made on the faith of an innocent misrepresentation of fact by the donne may be recovered in equity (In re Glubb, [1900] 1 Ch. 354).]A gift made under such circumstances will become valid if after the relation has ceased the donor intentionally abides by the gift (Mitchell v. Homfray, 1881, 8 Q. B. D. 587).As regards the acts necessary to carry out the intention to give: A gift may be made either (a) by a transfer of property to the donee or to trustees for the done, or (b) through the medium of a trust by which the donor constitutes himself a trustee for the donee. It is a question of intention in each case whether the donor intended to make the gift by means of a transfer or to convert himself into a trustee. If the intention was to transfer, the gift, imperfect, cannot be supported through the medium of a trust, nor vice versa (Milroy v. Lord, 1862, 4 De G., F. & J. 264; 45 E. R. 1185; Richards v. Delbridge, 1874, L. R. 18 Eq. 11; Heartley v. Nicholson, 1874, L. R. 19 Eq. 223; Carter v. Carter, [1896] 1 Ch. 62).About the PublisherForgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.comЭта книга будет изготовлена в соответствии с Вашим заказом по технологии Print-on-Demand компанией ООО «Книга по Требованию». Print-on-Demand - это технология печати книг по Вашему заказу на цифровом типографском оборудовании. Книга, произведенная по технологии Print-on-Demand (POD) представляет собой классическую печатную книгу с соблюдением всех стандартов качества, от офсетной бумаги и плотного картона до качественного клея, используемого при изготовлении. Черно-белая текстовая или полноцветная иллюстрированная книга (в зависимости от исходного файла, подготовленного к печати) может быть изготовлена в разных вариантах: - в мягкой обложке (Клеевое Бесшвейное Скрепление); - скрепление скобой (для книг с небольшим количеством страниц); - в твердом переплете с клееным текстовым блоком; Материалы, используемые при производстве книги: - бумага текстового блока - офсетная (белая или кремовая) 80 г/м2 - мягкая обложка - бумага мелованная 250 г/м2; - ламинация обложки - матовая или глянцевая; - твердый переплет - картон 2 мм, каптал, белые форзацы, прямой корешок - сверхпрочный полимерный клей; - каждая книга упакована в термопленку. Каждый заказ обрабатывается в индивидуальном порядке: каждой книге, напечатанной по технологии Print-on-Demand, присваивается уникальный номер.