The Measurement of Achievement in Shorthand

The Measurement of Achievement in Shorthand
The Measurement of Achievement in Shorthand
Excerpt from The Measurement of Achievement in Shorthand: A Dissertation Submitted to the Board of University Studies of the Johns Hopkins University in Conformity With the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, 1922During the last fifteen years there has been developing in university schools of education and in the practice of leading educators in the field, what might be spoken of as a movement for measurement in education. Teachers and schools have always felt the necessity for some sort of measure of the results of the educational process. In the past we have attempted to measure school efficiency by means of examinations and teachers' marks. In recent years there has been a growing tendency on the part of educators to give up reliance upon examinations and teachers' marks, and to depend instead upon the results secured by the use of certain tests and scales that have been scientifically constructed.There are several types of evidence that teachers' marks have been inaccurate. Probably no one who has had several years or more of schooling will have any difficulty in calling to mind teachers who were known as hard or easy markers. We know full well that an examination paper in geometry marked 95 by one teacher, might be marked 65 by another. In fact, such a paper was, for the sake of the experiment, graded by 116 different teachers. One-third of them marked it at from 27 to 65, one-third between 65 and 75, while the remaining third of the teachers assigned to this paper marks ranging from 75 to 91. The extreme marks given to this paper were 27 and 91.About the PublisherForgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.comThis book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.Эта книга будет изготовлена в соответствии с Вашим заказом по технологии Print-on-Demand компанией ООО «Книга по Требованию». Print-on-Demand - это технология печати книг по Вашему заказу на цифровом типографском оборудовании. Книга, произведенная по технологии Print-on-Demand (POD) представляет собой классическую печатную книгу с соблюдением всех стандартов качества, от офсетной бумаги и плотного картона до качественного клея, используемого при изготовлении. Черно-белая текстовая или полноцветная иллюстрированная книга (в зависимости от исходного файла, подготовленного к печати) может быть изготовлена в разных вариантах: - в мягкой обложке (Клеевое Бесшвейное Скрепление); - скрепление скобой (для книг с небольшим количеством страниц); - в твердом переплете с клееным текстовым блоком; Материалы, используемые при производстве книги: - бумага текстового блока - офсетная (белая или кремовая) 80 г/м2 - мягкая обложка - бумага мелованная 250 г/м2; - ламинация обложки - матовая или глянцевая; - твердый переплет - картон 2 мм, каптал, белые форзацы, прямой корешок - сверхпрочный полимерный клей; - каждая книга упакована в термопленку. Каждый заказ обрабатывается в индивидуальном порядке: каждой книге, напечатанной по технологии Print-on-Demand, присваивается уникальный номер.